World War II War Crimes Trials Against Japanese War Criminals Conducted by the Chinese Nationalists from 1946 to 1949

While there has been great scholarly interest in international tribunals such as the Nuremberg and Tokyo, little research has been done on Allied national efforts to prosecute the Japanese in the post-WWII era. Over 700 Chinese nationalist trials were conducted between 1946 and 1949 against the Japanese at twelve different locations in China. This is a wonderful example of domestic applications of an emerging body of international law. While an analysis of the trial judgments is an important part of the project, Chang will also closely examine the Chinese nationalist government’s involvement in the trials. Chang will travel to London to do research at the National Archives of the United Kingdom, which house important documents on the Chinese nationalists and their influence on the tribunals.

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Humanities

Nor Meekly Serve My Time': Irish Political Prisoners and the Struggle for Legitimacy within the Penal Systems of the United Kingdom and Ireland, 1916-1946

In political struggle, establishing the legitimacy of a cause is the key to founding and maintaining popular support. How then, do political prisoners labeled as “criminals” and “terrorists” by the governments they oppose proceed to gain a semblance of legitimacy? With this question in mind, Thomas will examine the condition of Irish political prisoners within the context of the modern British and Irish penal systems. He will trace the evolution of governmental and institutional policies, aimed at containing Nationalist combatants and suspected sympathizers, which exploited modes of extralegal incarceration. In addition, he will examine responses by prisoners who engaged in acts of protest –both to improve their material conditions and as propaganda to further the Nationalist cause — as part of a coercive dialogue between themselves and the state.

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Humanities

(De)Formation of Body Protocols: Dance's Changing Ontology in the Choreography of Meg Stuart and Sasha Waltz

Modernity is characterized by its inclination towards increased speed, production, and efficiency. In most commercially viable theater dance productions this manifests itself as the propensity for constant motion and the execution of virtuosic movement. However, Berlin based choreographers Meg Stuart and Sasha Waltz disrupt dance’s ontology and escape the homogenizing temporalities of modernity by incorporating slower motion and stillness in their choreography. Through an analysis of their creative work, Lauren will expose discursive possibilities pertaining to the body, consumerism, and individualism in relation to both Western cultural theory and traditions of contemporary theater dance. After conducting ethnographic and movement research in Berlin, Lauren will investigate the critical distinctions between the social context of Stuart’s and Waltz’s work in comparison with dance practice and scholarship in the United States.

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Humanities

Lyric in Public: Exploring Lyric Subjectivity and the Outdoor Advertisement Through Ekphrastic Poetry

Shawna will travel to New York and Los Angeles to collect her primary text, which will be an extensive photographic record of static advertisements displayed in public space. Using this index of images, along with personal interviews gathering individuals’ responses to advertising, she will produce a collection of lyric poetry that investigates the boundary between the poetic arts and an image-oriented culture. By means of ekphrasis, an aesthetic technique traditionally used to mediate between two art forms, these poems will render the visual constituents of advertising imagery into the temporally distinct realities of linguistic and textual representation. Her research into picture theory, iconology and lyricism will contribute towards an intent to posit and express persuasive images’ resonance within a poetic speaker’s subjectivity, and address poetry’s remarkable separation from public life.

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Humanities

A 'Supreme Goddess' in the Making: The Evolution of Tara in Indian Buddhist Sculpture, ca. 5-8th centuries CE

Hillary’s research will take her to the states of Maharashtra and Orissa in central India, to the ancient Buddhist sites of Kanheri, Ellora, Aurangabad, and Ratnagiri, among others, where the earliest relief sculptures of Tara remain in situ. In tracking the early evolution Tara’s form, Hillary’s project will examine how the goddess is increasingly incorporated into Buddhist practice in the 5th-8th centuries CE. As Tara eventually becomes the most significant female figure in Buddhism with the rise of the Vajrayana (Tantric) school, Hillary’s study asks, can these works of relief sculpture – as visual texts – tell us as much as the written word about developing Vajrayana ritual technology? An examination into the origin and early evolution of Tara in Buddhist art, she hopes, will contribute to a better understanding of how and when Tantric Buddhism developed in India (and what it looked like).

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Humanities

The Ottoman Empire's Religious and Political Relationship with Afghanistan during the Early 20th Century

It is well known that the Ottoman Empire had deep influence in the Middle East and South East Europe for many centuries. However, the Ottoman impact on Afghanistan, especially in the late 19th and early 20th century, is less commonly acknowledged despite its relevance to our understanding of contemporary problems in the region. To fill this void, Hakeem will study the relationship between the Ottoman Empire and Afghanistan, in which Islam was used as a political tool. Hakeem will conduct research in both Turkey and Afghanistan in order to examine documents, letters, and declassified information from various archives and libraries. His study will culminate in an analysis of the historical, cultural, political and religious concepts within the understanding of the Ottoman and Afghans in the early 20th century.

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Humanities

Courting Rhetoric: The Poetics of Erotic Logos at the Platonic Origins of Philosophy

Through an attempt to gain a sense of the significance of Plato’s extensive discussions concerning the nature of language, this study undertakes to understand how the dialectical representation of rhetoric and the regulation of sophistic epistemologies specifically play into securing the institutionalization of philosophy. Foregrounding the particular role of the sophist Gorgias, both as a recurrent figure in the Platonic dialogues and as a thinker in his own right, in establishing the disciplinary identity of philosophy, Valerie will set out to show how understanding Gorgias’ Encomium of Helen as the paradeigma of sophistic speech grants us the means of critically engaging the metaphorics of desire and sexual subjugation that Plato himself brings into play in legislating the conditions for the realization of the philosopher and the legitimization of philosophy as the authentic ‘logos’, among other forms of discourse. By reading the epistemic entailments of rhetoric’s discursive abduction through the political […]

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Humanities

Social Perceptions and Attitudes about the Revitalization of Cauchois, a Dialect Spoken in Seine-Maritime (Haute-Normandie, France)

In July 2008, the French government finally listed Cauchois, the Norman dialect spoken in Seine Maritime, as an official language of France. Until then, the very existence of a Norman language, and hence of Cauchois had been denied. Similarly, many speakers of the dialect have often and inaccurately defined the language as either “dead” or as a non-standard version of French. In recent years, however, diverse social groups have actively reclaimed and promoted Cauchois. Marie’s research will investigate the discourses and strategies used by different groups to either reject or support the recognition and preservation of Cauchois. It will further investigate the attitudes of Cauchois users from different socioeconomic backgrounds. The latter are from the Jumiges Loop, a small Cauchois-speaking area in the Northern part of the Seine Valley.

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Humanities

Finding the Lost Generation: Material Culture, Women, and UC Berkeley in the 1920s

During the summer Anthony will be excavating an archaeological site near the UC Berkeley campus that was designated as female student housing from the 1920s to mid 1940s. Using both material culture collected during excavation and archival documents, Anthony will do a comparative study between the lives of male and female UC Berkeley students of the time period. Sites associated with Zeta Psi, the first fraternity in California, have already been excavated, providing Anthony a wealth of information on all-male living situations. Finding archaeological data on all-female situations is not as easy. Anthony hopes the excavation will unearth clues as to how female Cal students were maneuvering through a patriarchal society at a time when gender roles were in flux.

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Humanities